Published Research


Stress in mangrove forests: early detection and preemptive rehabilitation are essential for future successful worldwide mangrove forest management

Lewis, R.R., E.C. Milbrandt, B. Brown, K.W. Krauss, A.S. Rovai, J.L. Beever, and L.L. Flynn

Published In 2016

Marine Pollution Bulletin 109:764–771.

Mangrove forest rehabilitation should begin much sooner than at the point of catastrophic loss. We describe the need for “mangrove forest heart attack prevention”, and how that might be accomplished in a general sense by embedding plot and remote sensing monitoring within coastal management plans. The major cause of mangrove stress at many sites globally is often linked to reduced tidal flows and exchanges. Blocked water flows can reduce flushing not only from the seaward side, but also result in higher salinity and reduced sediments when flows are blocked landward. Long-term degradation of function leads to acute mortality prompted by acute events, but created by a systematic propensity for long-term neglect of mangroves. Often, mangroves are lost within a few years; however, vulnerability is re-set decades earlier when seemingly innocuous hydrological modifications are made (e.g., road construction, blocked tidal channels), but which remain undetected without reasonable large-scale monitoring.